Thromboembolic manifestations of the eye can vary from a trivial tributary retinal vein occlusion to a catastrophic cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. These conditions can be classified as pathologies directly affecting the eye or those causing secondary lesions due to systemic issues and can be managed accordingly. Also, recently the incidence of thrombotic phenomenon affecting multiple organs (with the eye being no exception) is estimated to be around 25% among patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit for COVID-19, even though anticoagulant treatment was administered prophylactically. In this chapter, the various pathophysiologies of the ocular thrombotic events are highlighted with a special focus on the COVID-19 induced thrombotic ocular complications. Ophthalmologists, sometimes being the first responder, have a vigilant role to play with a heightened awareness of these atypical extrapulmonary thrombotic ocular manifestations, which are not only vision-threatening; in certain instances, life-threatening too. This chapter summarizes the recent advances in ocular thrombotic diseases with focal points on the current recommendations in COVID-19 induced ocular thrombotic complications. The potential diagnostic and preventive actions such as the prophylactic role of anti-thrombotic therapy, baseline non-contrast chest computed tomography, as well as recommendations for patients with COVID-19 infection are discussed in detail.
Part of the book: Art and Challenges Involved in the Treatment of Ischaemic Damage
The field of augmented reality (AR) and three-dimensional (3D) printing are rapidly growing with many new potential applications in medical education and pedagogy. In this chapter, we have used 3D AR and 3D printed models of the cerebral arterial circulatory system, created by us to simplify concept learning. Various cerebral circulation diseases pertaining to ophthalmology can be explained in detail for immersive learning, with the help of various 3D models, for structures such as the circle of Willis, cavernous sinus, various cranial nerves, cerebrum, cerebellum and the eye. These models not only help in cognitive understanding of cerebral circulation diseases but also aid in diagnosing them with better conviction. Ophthalmologists, sometimes being the first responder, have a vigilant role to play with a heightened awareness of these cerebral arterial circulation diseases, which are not only vision-threatening but life-threatening too. This chapter summarizes the construction and holistic application of these 3D ophthalmology-related arterial cerebral circulation models in AR and 3D printing.
Part of the book: Cerebral Circulation
Cerebral circulation is the flow of blood through a group of arteries and veins which supply the brain. There are various diseases related to ophthalmology, due to pathologies in the cerebral arterial system. Arteries inside the skull can be blocked by plaque or disease, which in turn triggers a series of events leading to various cranial nerve palsies, visual fields defects, retinal diseases, etc. The highlights of this chapter are the novel three-dimensional (3D) animative videos created by us, to simplify various cerebral arterial circulation diseases and their diagnostic concepts for neophytes. 3D animative videos can aid learning and help in the cognitive concept building of these complex pathologies.
Part of the book: Cerebral Circulation
The healthcare sector has had a relatively late implementation of environmental thinking in its setup. “Green electronic technologies and go green healthcare system” has recently evolved to address the biodegradability and biocompatibility issues faced by inorganic electronics and non-biodegradable materials. Green healthcare has the capability to promote global health both directly and indirectly. With the rise in environmental degradation, utilizing innovative ‘Go Green’ strategies in ophthalmology is of utmost importance. It has been structured to imbibe environmentalism into healthcare. In this chapter, we have emphasized a few simple patient point of care (POC) innovations in the field of ophthalmology that could transform the future of disease management toward a much more sustainable model by reducing resource and energy consumption. We have discussed how we innovated the novel coronicle (corona + cubicle) during the COVID-19 era, which housed all the essential ophthalmic gadgets and was interconnected using the local area network (LAN) for data access in patient care. Turning to patient counseling, we have highlighted how our innovative and cost-effective 3D augmented reality, and 4D holographic diagnostics and counseling platforms are effective in replacing the conventional paper-based system.
Part of the book: Advances in Green Electronics Technologies in 2023