Cancer is the biggest health problem worldwide due to its high mortality rate. Lymphoma is defined as a group of malignant diseases that is caused by clonal proliferation of lymphocytes and is classified under two major groups: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Genetic predisposition and some environmental factors constitute risk factors. Symptoms of the disease include unexplained fever, swelling of lymph glands, swollen abdomen, tiredness, loss of appetite, frequent infections, and weight loss. Positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans, along with MRI, are widely used for the diagnosis of lymphoma. Advanced blood and lymph node biopsy tests are used to evaluate treatment effect on blood cells and to confirm the diagnosis of lymphoma, respectively. Current treatment options include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and bone marrow/stem cell transplantation. Development of new treatment options for cancer medications includes small molecules and monoclonal antibodies for immunotherapy. In addition, the discovery of new phytochemical agents used in complementary and alternative medicine adds perspective to the treatment of lymphoma.
Part of the book: Lymphoma
Protein purification is not a simple task. Yet, overexpression at bacterial systems with recombinant modifications brings further difficulties. Adding a tag, an affinity label, and expressing particular domains of the whole protein, especially hydrophobic sections, make purification a challenging process. Protein folding pattern may perturb N- or C-terminal tag and this terminal preference may lead to poor purification yield. Codon optimization, solvent content and type, ionic conditions, resin types, and self-cleavage of recombinant proteins bring further difficulties to protein expression and purification steps. The chapter overviews problems of protein purification through a small peptide overexpression in bacteria (Recombinant anti-SARS Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) Spike protein Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) antibody (Clone Sb#14). The chapter also covers troubleshooting at distinct steps and highlights essential points to solve crucial issues of protein purification.
Part of the book: Protein Detection