Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), which are synthetic organic chemical compounds, either intentionally or unintentionally produced, have widely aroused public concern in recent years. These chemicals are toxic and major environmental concern due to their persistence, long range transportability, bioaccumulation and potentially adverse effects on living organisms. Uncontrolled inputs combined with poor environmental management often result in elevated levels of persistent organic pollutants in affected estuaries. Since the Stockholm Convention on POPs was adopted, different techniques have been extensively developed. A major focus revealed the need for low cost methods that can be implemented easily in developing countries such as electrochemical techniques. Persistent organic pollutants are known to be resistant to conventional treatment methods such as flocculation, coagulation, filtration and oxidant chemical treatment. However, various advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as, activated carbon adsorption, biodegradation using membrane bioreactor and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been applied in the treatment of POPs.
Part of the book: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)