The first ever human identification through DNA analysis was done in the year 1987. Since then, this test has been used, not only in the ruling of civil and juridical cases, but also for human identification of missing persons and mass disaster victims. In this chapter we will present the usefulness of genetic DNA testing of skeletonized remains for human identification, by using automate DNA extraction from three different human bone types: tooth, femur and petrous pyramid. For each case, we obtained saliva samples on buccal swabs from relatives. After the bones were washed and cleaned, Bead Balls Mill Mix 20 (Tehtnica Domel, Slovenia), was used to obtain the bone powder. The DNA extraction from bone samples was performed on the automate Maxwell RSC 48 Instrument (Promega, USA), using the Maxwell FSC DNA IQ Casework Kit (Promega, USA). Power Quant System (Promega, USA) was used for DNA quantification of the samples. The DNA samples were amplified on a Pro Flex PCR System (Thermo Fischer, USA), using the Global Filer PCR Amplification Kit (Applied Biosystems, USA). PCR products were run on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer (Thermo Fischer, USA). Data analysis was performed by Gene Mapper 1.4. Considering that these cases involved DNA extraction from teeth, bones and old human remains, automate system was felt to be the best option to reduce handling errors and increase the possibilities of obtaining good quality DNA.
Part of the book: Criminology and Post-Mortem Studies