Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered a risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Metformin, an anti-diabetic drug, has been shown to lower the cardiovascular events in pre-clinical and clinical studies. Many research articles suggests that metformin has a protective effect on CAD beyond its hypoglycemic effects. Patients with diabetes type 2 have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and commonly use combination therapy consisting of the anti-diabetic drug metformin and a cholesterol-lowering statin. Statins have been found to be a safe and effective approach to reduce serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, which is the cornerstone for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. However, regular statin monotherapy in some patients may not be sufficient to achieve a therapeutic LDL-C. It has been reported that statins increased the incidence of new-onset diabetes in a dose dependent manner especially in women, the elderly, or in the presence of a family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Asian ethnicity. The molecular mechanisms contributed to antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. In this chapter, we aimed to investigate whether the combined administration of metformin and atorvastatin could achieve superior protective effects on different disease treatment purpose and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of the combinations.
Part of the book: Metformin