Emerging proteomic technologies offer new insight in the study of malignant tumor to identify protein biomarkers for early detection, stratification, prediction and monitoring of treatment, as well as to detect target molecules for therapy. The tumor protein biomarker is responsible for the regulation of the cell cycle to promote cell proliferation and resistance to cell death. Important technologies include ELISA, immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, western blot, mass spectrometry, protein microarray, and microfluidics for the study of screening, protein profiling, identification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of differential expressed oncoproteins relative to cancer tissues, counterparts at different stages of the disease from preneoplasia to neoplasia. It can also provide a detailed description of identifying tissue-specific protein biomarkers and to analysis the modification of protein activity in cancer conditions. In this chapter, we discuss current and emerging protein assays for improving cancer diagnosis, including trends toward advances in assay miniaturization, improve sensitivity and specificity, time and cost-effective, and accuracy in detection and measurement of protein activity. However, information from these protein diagnostic technologies should be integrated to obtain the optimal information required for the clinical management of a patient.
Part of the book: Protein Detection