Advanced modes of mechanical ventilation emerged from the need for better control of the ventilator by the patient, the possibility of respiratory mechanics and respiratory drive monitoring in assisted modes and a better patient-ventilator synchrony. Volume-assured pressure support ventilation (VAPSV) has the advantage of the variable of flow pressure support ventilation (PSV) assuring tidal volume in each respiratory cycle. Proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) delivers assistance in proportion of inspiratory efforts while monitoring work of breathing, respiratory compliance, resistance and auto-PEEP, improving patient-ventilator asynchrony. Neurally adjusted ventilatory assist ventilation (NAVA) provides diaphragmatic electroactivity information and a better inspiratory and expiratory patient-ventilator synchrony. Adaptative support ventilation (ASV) assures a pre-set minute ventilation adjusting Pressure Support according to respiratory rate. Intellivent-ASV adds SpO2 and PETCO2 monitoring to adjust minute ventilation and PEEP/FIO2 according to lung pathology. Smart-Care ventilation provides an algorithm that decreases PSV according to patients tidal volume, respiratory rate and ETCO2 according to lung pathology and performs a spontaneous breathing trial indicating the redness for extubation. Clinical indications of advanced modes are to improve patient-ventilator synchrony and provide better respiratory monitoring in the assisted modes of mechanical ventilation.
Part of the book: Mechanical Ventilation