Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a rare disease first described in 1997. Since then, its incidence has continued to increase. Current estimated lifetime risk in women with textured breast implants range from 1:1000 to 1:30,000. Most cases present with rapid and dramatic breast swelling resulting from peri-implant fluid collection. Palpable mass, pain, and skin lesions also occur. A high index of suspicion in patients who develop a seroma around the breast implant more than one year after implant placement is required. The combination of clinical history, physical exam findings, and appropriate imaging workup can lead to a timely and accurate diagnosis. The disease has excellent prognosis when it is diagnosed earlier, and complete surgery is performed. Radiologists, particularly those involved in breast imaging, can play an essential role in early diagnosis. This chapter presents an overview of the disease, including relevant imaging findings.
Part of the book: Lymphoma