The spleen is a vital lymphoid soft organ located in the left hypochondrium region. It is a multi-dimensional organ that enlarges in all dimensions during some disease conditions. Recently, splenomegaly prevalence has been increasing throughout the world. Due to the lack of attention in clinical practice, splenomegaly has become quite a common problem in all parts of the world. The detection of the spleen by palpation is not approval of enlarged spleen because normal spleen may be palpable. A detailed knowledge of morphometric variations of the spleen is of great value in diagnosing splenomegaly clinically, radiologically, and for surgical procedures. Measurement of spleen size by sonography is important as it gives true result than splenic palpation and for identification of disorders present with enlargement or reduction of the spleen. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the anatomy, sonography, and dimensional variation of spleen among individuals with different sociodemographic and anthropometric measurements. The current study reviews different types of literature conducted on spleen all over the world. The result from overall spleen dimensions review shows measurements vary: spleen length (7–14 cm), spleen width (2–7.5 cm), spleen thickness (2–7 cm), and spleen volume (20–350 cm3). The literature revealed that spleen dimensions are affected by geographical differences, races, nutritional status, physical exercise, and anthropometric measurements. The result from reviews shows that spleen dimensions are larger in males than females. As age increases, spleen dimensions significantly decrease. Spleen dimensions positively correlate with height, weight, body mass index, and body surface of individuals. The spleen dimensions were higher in males than in females and have significant positive correlation with height, weight, body mass index, and body surface area. Clinicians, radiologists, and surgeons should confirm splenomegaly by both palpation and sonography. Spleen dimensions variation due to geographical sex, age, and other anthropometric measurements should be taken into consideration during their clinical investigation. Radiologists should measure all dimensions of spleen rather than the length to rule out splenomegaly correctly.
Part of the book: Ultrasound Imaging