Dysfunctional voiding is a functional voiding disorder characterized by an intermittent uroflow rate due to involuntary intermittent contractions of the striated muscle of the external urethral sphincter or pelvic floor muscles (PFMs) during voiding in neurologically normal children. Symptoms include voiding difficulties as well as urgency, voiding frequency and, in some instances, urinary incontinence and/or nocturnal enuresis. Recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic constipation and/or fecal incontinence and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) contribute to this condition. Urotherapy is the mainstay of the treatment. It starts with education and demystification and simple behavioral modifications. Specific measures include PFM exercises with various forms of biofeedback concentrating at the recognition of PFM function and their relaxation. However, the PFMs are part of the abdominal capsule and they act in coordination with lower abdominal muscles. These muscles need to be relaxed during voiding. Diaphragmatic breathing exercises were introduced to teach children abdominal muscle relaxation. Easy to learn exercises do not require any specific equipment and can be performed at all health care levels. Children from five years of age could benefit from these exercises. In children resistant to standard treatment, botulinum toxin type A application, intermittent catheterization and surgery in children with VUR are recommended.
Part of the book: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction