Chromosomal abnormalities are a popular natural phenomenon, especially in polyploid plants, and their unique existence in plants is one of the major forces for speciation and evolution. This means that plants with existing chromosomal abnormalities developing through sexual and asexual pathways shed light on increasing biomass and adapting ecology. Regarding the former, plants with chromosomal abnormalities experience not only enlargement effects but also increased phytochemical compounds. As far as ecological perspectives are concerned, chromosomal abnormalities in plants enhance biotic and abiotic tolerance to climate change. This chapter focuses on chromosomal abnormalities in whole genome doubling, such as autopolyploid, allopolyploid, and aneuploidy plants, and discusses the effects and benefits of these abnormalities to evolution and ecological adaptation at the individual and population levels. It also discusses some advantages and disadvantages of polyploid animals in comparison with polyploid plants.
Part of the book: Down Syndrome and Other Chromosome Abnormalities