The growth, development and yield of crops as well as animal and fishery are depending on the prevailing extreme weather events. Vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is becoming increasingly apparent in recent years. During 2014 and 2020, India experienced episodes of abnormally widespread and untimely hailstorm events. The conversion of number of thunderstorms into hail storm events in India shows increasing trend day by day. And the type and level of hailstorm stress must be properly quantified through proper scientific planning for present as well as future references for finding mitigation and adaptation solutions. Keeping above in view, this review paper has been prepared. This study includes aspects covering atmospheric stress (hailstorm), their challenges and coping strategies in various agricultural enterprises including crops and livestock. This review paper will ignite the minds of all stakeholders including students and researchers to explore more in finding proper adaptation and mitigation measures. This study will pave the way for developing food and livelihood systems that will have greater economic and environmental resilience to risk. Therefore, the available information has been reviewed on formation of hailstorms, its characteristics and damage potential, forecasting and control mechanisms, mitigation and adaptions through different innovations and interventions.
Part of the book: Plant Defense Mechanisms