One of the most common types of cancer is head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancers are the sixth most common cancer worldwide and the most common cancer in developing countries. Oral cancer, which is a subset of head and neck cancers, refers to any cancerous growth in the oral cavity. Risk factors for oral cancer include age, malnutrition, genetic factors, family history, X-rays, papilloma virus, alcohol, smoking, tobacco, which three last are the strongest risk factors. The destructive link between tobacco products and human cancers stems from a powerful combination of two factors - nicotine and carcinogens. The highest incidence of tobacco related oral cancer is seen in low and middle income countries. The chance of curing oral cancers increases if they are diagnosed and treated early. At least three-quarters of all oral cancers can be prevented by quitting smoking and drinking alcohol. Screening programs can be valuable in patients from high-risk groups (smokers and alcoholics) or in patients with a previous diagnosis of cancer outside the head and neck.
Part of the book: Oral Cancer
Melanoma arises from melanocyte cells. Melanoma spreads faster than basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) if not diagnosed and treated early. Melanocyte tumors cause malignant melanoma. The preponderance of these cells is in the skin, gut, and eye. Melanoma is a rare kind of skin cancer, although it causes 75% of skin cancer deaths. Melanocytes create melanin, a dark pigment, in the skin. Despite years of lab and clinical research, early surgical removal of tiny cancers remains the most successful treatment. The deadliest skin cancer is melanoma. Skin melanocytes are involved. Melanocytes produce skin pigment melanin. Melanin protects skin against ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Skin cancer is the most common form in the United States. When diagnosed early, skin cancer can be treated with topical medications, office therapies, or outpatient surgery. Dermatologists treat skin disorders and conditions. Skin cancer causes less than 1% of cancer fatalities. Detection and treatment of melanoma in its early stages are typically curable. Once melanoma spreads further into the skin or other organs, it becomes incurable and potentially lethal. Early detection of melanoma in the United States is anticipated to result in a 5-year survival rate of roughly 99%.
Part of the book: Melanoma