The current study deals with the mapping and evaluation of forest and land use cover changes in the western Himalayas, Pakistan. These forest types include i) Moist temperate forests ii) Mixed coniferous forests and iii) Sub-tropical broad leaved forests. Moist temperate forest mostly consists of evergreen conifers with some of oaks and deciduous trees. Subtropical pine forest are mostly dominated by Pinus roxburghii. These forest type are mostly mixed by Pinus roxburghii and other coniferous species like Pinus wallichiana at the upper ranges in Dewal, Angoori, Nambal, Aucha and Khanitak etc. The broad-leaved subtropical forests are recorded on the hills and in the lower slopes of Himalaya near Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The high quantity of vegetation index were observed in winter season as compared to summer. The Landsat satellite images of years 1988, 1998, 2008 and 2018 were classified into land-cover units. Vegetation land decreased in the total area whereas the bare land class increased in the total. Water class further reduced and the built- up class increased up in the Murree area, Pakistan.
Part of the book: Vegetation Index and Dynamics