Tumors like glioblastoma are inaccessible due to blood brain barrier. The permeability of radioisotopes can be improved by conjugating them with nanoparticles. The most common malignant adult brain tumor is glioblastoma, which has very poor patient prognosis. The mean survival for highly proliferative glioblastoma is only 10–14 months despite an aggressive radiotherapy and chemotherapy following debulking surgery. β− particle emitters like 131I, 90Y, 186/188Re, and 177Lu have been coupled with nanoparticles and used for treatment of glioblastoma. These radiopharmaceutical compounds have resulted in a stabilization and improvement of the neurological status with minimal side effects. Similarly, α particle emitters like 213Bi, 211At, and 225Ac are an innovative and interesting alternative. Alpha particles deliver a high proportion of their energy inside the targeted cells within a few micrometers from the emission point versus several millimeters for β− particles. Thus, α particles are highly efficient in killing tumor cells with minimal irradiation of healthy tissues and permits targeting of isolated tumor cells. This has been confirmed by subsequent clinical trials which showed better therapeutic efficacy and minimal side effects, thus opening a new and promising era for glioblastoma medical care using α therapy.
Part of the book: Medical Isotopes