Part of the book: Cardiac Defibrillation
Left ventricular (LV) lead positioning is one of the main contributors to the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response. Conventional left ventricular (LV) lead implantation faces several difficulties, which may ultimately affect lead stability and performance. Several imaging techniques have been proposed to overcome all these obstacles including multimodality cardiac imaging to help in preprocedural or intraprocedural identification of the latest activated areas of the LV. Emerging pacing strategies like LV multisite and multipoint pacing may help deliver an enhanced response to CRT, but prospective trials are warranted to confirm the superiority of this approach.
Part of the book: Cardiac Diseases and Interventions in 21st Century
Amyloidosis represents a heterogeneous group of disorders caused by amyloid fibril deposition in the extracellular space in different organs. Among the many types of amyloidosis cardiac involvement occurs almost exclusively with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis (AL amyloidosis) or transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR amyloidosis). When present cardiac amyloidosis (CA) has a significant impact on disease prognosis. The typical clinical presentation in CA is that of a restrictive cardiomyopathy. Clinical suspicion of CA is based on clinical, laboratory and electrocardiographic findings. The diagnosis is confirmed using echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, biopsy, and/or bone scintigraphy. A precise definition of amyloidosis type is essential for choosing the specific treatment for this condition. Treatment of CA has two components: general treatment of congestive HF, and specific treatment of the underlying protein misfolding disorder.
Part of the book: Cardiomyopathy