Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and represents the fourth most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Treatment of HCC is dictated based upon cancer stage, with the most universally accepted staging system being the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging system. This system takes into account tumor burden, active liver function, and patient performance status. BCLC stage C HCC is deemed advanced disease, which is often characterized by preserved liver function (Child-Pugh A or B) with potential portal invasion, extrahepatic spread, cancer related symptoms, or decreased performance status. Sorafenib has been the standard treatment for advanced HCC over the past decade; however, its use is limited by low response rates, decreased tolerance, and limited survival benefit. Researchers and clinicians have been investigating effective treatment modalities for HCC over the past several years with a focus on systemic regimens, locoregional therapy, and invasive approaches. In this systemic review, we discuss the management of advanced HCC as well as the ongoing research on various treatment opportunities for these patients.
Part of the book: Hepatocellular Carcinoma