The significant challenges faced by modern-day medicine include designing a target-specific drug delivery system with a controlled release mechanism, having the potential to avoid opsonization and reduce bio-toxicity. Nanoparticles are materials with nanoscale dimensions and maybe natural and synthetic in origin. Engineered nano-sized materials are playing an indispensable role in the field of nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. Besides, engineered nano-sized particles impart therapeutic applications with enhanced specificity because of their unique bespoke properties. Moreover, such application-customized nanoparticles offer an enormous possibility for their compatibility with different biological molecules like proteins, genetic materials, cell membranes, and organelles at the nano-bio frame. Besides, surface functionalization with targeting moieties such as small molecule ligands, monoclonal antibodies, aptamers, cell-penetrating peptides, and proteins facilitate nanoparticle-based specific tissue targeting. This review summarizes some of the advances in nanoparticle-based therapeutics and theranostics. A better understanding of idealistic preparation methods, physicochemical attributes, surface functionalization, biocompatibility can empower the potential translation of nanomaterials from the ‘bench-to-bedside’. In modern-day medicine, engineered nanoparticles have a wide range of demands ranging from bio-imaging, theranostics, tissue engineering, sensors, drug and nucleic acid delivery, and other pharmaceuticals applications. 2D and 3D mammalian cell-based assays are widely used to model diseases, screening of drugs, drug discovery, and toxicity analyses. Recent advances in cell culture technology and associated progress in nanotechnology have enabled researchers to study a wide variety of physiologically relevant questions. This chapter explores the properties of nanoparticles, different targeted delivery methods, biological analysis, and theranostics. Moreover, this chapter also emphasizes biosafety and bioethics associated with mammalian cell culture and discusses the significance of intellectual property rights from an industrial and academic perspective.
Part of the book: Cell Culture