Rice is an important cereal worldwide and it occupies the top position among the cereals in Bangladesh. Rice plant suffers from around 32 diseases of which ten are major in Bangladesh at present. Among the diseases, Bacterial Blight (BB) caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) considered as a most destructive disease occurs in both rainfed and irrigated seasons of Bangladesh. BB causes considerable yield loss varies from 30 to 50% depending on the outbreak. It is also an important disease in most of the South and Southeast Asian countries. To develop environment-friendly sustainable management approach against BB of rice, in total sixty three plant growth promoting bacteria were identified from rice phylloplane and rhizosphere that are antagonistic to X. oryzae pv. oryzae during boro and aman seasons 2018 and 2019.These bacterial species inhibited the growth of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in vitro by 20.83 to 76.19%. These bacterial isolates were identified by sequencing of PCR products of 16SrDNA belonging to the genera mostly Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Serratia. Out of these bacterial species, 48 bacterial species were found as positive for IAA production, all 63 bacterial species were found positive for siderophore production and 48 were found capable to solubilize insoluble phosphate. Based on growth inhibition of X. oryzae pv. oryzae in in vitro, thirty two bacterial species were selected for plant growth promotion assessment and evaluation of net house and field efficacy in controlling BB of rice. These bacterial species were formulated using talcum powder which was viable for at least three months post formulation. Assessment of plant growth promoting determinants revealed that all 32 bacterial species identified in this study enhance the growth of rice plants as measured by root and shoot length and and reduced the BB severity in susceptible rice cultivar significantly as compared with untreated control.
Part of the book: Integrative Advances in Rice Research
Maize (Bhutta) is one of the important growing cereal crops in Bangladesh. Toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus and Fusarium infect stored maize grains. Enzyme-linked immusorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine total aflatoxins and fumonisins contamination in stored maize grains collected from 15 Bangladeshi maize-producing areas. The highest total concentration of aflatoxins (103.07 µg/kg) and fumonisin (9.18 mg/kg) was found in Chuadanga and Gaibandha, whereas the lowest was detected for aflatoxins (1.07 µg/kg) and (0.11 mg/kg) in Dinajpur and Cumilla, respectively. The findings clearly demonstrated that aflatoxin concentrations in samples from six regions and fumonisin concentrations in samples from 10 regions were beyond the regulatory limit of aflatoxin (10 ppb) and fumonisin (1 ppm), respectively, as set by European Union (EU). However, a positive correlation between aflatoxins with toxigenic A. flavus, and fumonisins with toxigenic Fusarium spp. was observed. The fungi associated with maize grains were identified by sequencing of ITS regions. Moreover, toxigenic A. flavus was confirmed using primers specific to nor, apa2, omtA and primer FUM1 for F. proliferatum and F. oxysporum. Since the Bangladesh Food Safety Authority has not authorized any precise regulation limits for maize mycotoxin contamination, these results will serve as a benchmark for monitoring mycotoxin contamination in maize and also to develop globally practiced biocontrol approach for producing safe food and feed.
Part of the book: Maize Genetic Resources