Infertility is a serious problem of not being able to conceive despite regular intercourse for more than a year. Natural conception is seen to be achieved in 80%–85% of couples. About 15% of couples suffer infertility with male factor contributing to almost 50% of cases. Paradoxically, on traditional assessment, the underlying etiology of male contribution towards infertility remains unrecognized in 30% of the patients and thereby grouped as idiopathic. Diagnostics of male infertility cannot therefore be limited to usual semen analysis only. The spectrum of the recent research encourages the experts in the field to approach the Clinical, Molecular and cytogenetic shades associated with the problem besides secondary factors like life style and environment. Clinical assessment sums the medical history and physical examination of the affected individual. Molecular and cytogenetic analysis help gain new insights in understanding the problem and thereby an advantage for a successful assisted reproductive treatment (ART). Given the cost and burden ART puts in and prior to application of any invasive techniques, understanding precisely the etiology associated with male infertility is essential for the fertility specialist to circumvent inefficient or any unproductive steps in the fertilization process besides helping in counseling patients on their chance of success with the use of reproductive technology.
Part of the book: Infertility and Assisted Reproduction