Bio-invasion caused due to ballast water discharge is one of many problems in marine pollution. Countries such as Canada, Brazil, USA and Australia recognized the problems associated with ballasting and deballasting. Countries affected with invasive species formulated specific laws for discharging ballast water in their respective ports. Under the coordination of IMO, countries came together and stressed for globally accepted guidelines that each and every ship has to comply with, while entering any port. In the wake of this, IMO in a convention (2004) on ballast water, proposed guidelines for performing proper ballast water management. This includes ballast water exchange, ballast water treatment, port reception facility, technology approval process, sampling ballast water, analysis methods of ballast water and risk assessment in the convention. Eventually the 2004 convention was found to be inadequate in providing complete elimination of bio invasion. Amendments are made to the 2004 convention over the years for ballast water management. It is found that the member states should share technology among developing countries in establishing sampling and testing laboratories. Region specific sampling analysis and research has to be formulated to understand the bio-invasion based on region and characteristics of different target species in evaluating risk assessment. The D2 standard mentioned in the 2004 convention should be changed from size specific to ‘no organism’ standard in ballast water for discharge. New combination of BWT systems and ‘no ballast’ system with modification to the ship design should be tested, developed and implemented to bring in ecological balance and sustenance in the marine ecosystems.
Part of the book: Modern Ship Engineering, Design and Operations