Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex disorder without a single cause but with multiple etiologies. Monozygotic twin studies suggesting high discordant rates provide evidence for epigenetic mechanisms among the factors that result in increased susceptibility. Among the different epigenetic modifications in mammals, DNA methylation mediated by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) is the most-well studied. Studies on post-mortem brain samples and blood samples of SZ patients revealed altered levels of most DNMTs. In addition, some recent studies also reported disease-associated SNPs in the DNMT genes. While the effects of dysregulation of DNMTs are beginning to be understood, many unanswered questions remain. Here, we review the current evidences that shed light on the relationship between DNMT dysregulation and SZ, and suggest the possible strategies to address some of the unanswered questions.
Part of the book: Psychosis