Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are heterogeneous due to their cell of origins, biogenesis, stimuli in the microenvironment and so on. Single EV analysis is required for the study of EV heterogeneity. Besides the investigation of EV biology, single EV analysis technologies are promising approach for liquid biopsy, which relies on the detection of biomarker EVs readily available in body fluids but in trace amount. However, EVs are nano-scaled structures, which beyond the resolution of conventional technologies like optical microscopes, flow cytometers and so on. In this chapter, we will discuss advanced strategies for studying single EVs, including single EV imaging systems, flow cytometers, nano-sensing technologies and single EV barcoding assay.
Part of the book: Extracellular Vesicles