Amyloidosis is a rare multiorgan disease defined by a process of irreversible, extracellular accumulation of fibrillar proteins in the tissues, including the heart. Cardiac involvement is seen in most forms of amyloidosis, but it is frequently present and clinically significant in light chain (AL)-amyloidosis as well as transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR). Cardiac amyloid accumulation leads to a restrictive filling pattern, which must be differentiated from other forms of restrictive and hypertrophic cardiomyopathies due to consequences for the treatment. Evolving knowledge of the disease has led to a definite diagnosis of the cardiac amyloidosis (CA) using non-invasive and low-risk diagnostic features, such as scintigraphy (gamma scan) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 mapping technics. The availability and diagnostic accuracy of these technics has reduced the need for cardiac biopsy. In the following chapter, we will describe common types of CA, the basic concepts, and updates of non-invasive diagnostic features.
Part of the book: Amyloidosis