In this chapter, we review the basics of retinal vascular anatomy and discuss the physiologic process of retinal blood flow regulation. We then aim to explore the relationship between intraocular pressure and retinal circulation, taking into account factors that affect retinal hemodynamics. Specifically, we discuss the concepts of ocular perfusion pressure, baro-damage to the endothelium and transmural pressure in relation to the intraocular pressure. Finally, we demonstrate the inter-relationships of these factors and concepts in the pathogenesis of some retinal vascular conditions; more particularly, through examples of two common clinical pathologies of diabetic retinopathy and central retinal vein occlusion.
Part of the book: Ocular Hypertension