Part of the book: Liver Biopsy
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a blood-transmitted disease that spreads among 3% of the world’s population causing seriously increasing mortality rates. The HCV prevalence in Egypt in October 2008 was 14.7% and declined to 6.3% in the survey carried out in October 2015. Nowadays, the new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) show amazing results especially with regard to HCV genotype 1, but there is still a great necessity to produce a vaccine to avoid this viral infection. Additionally, neutralizing anti-HCV antibodies could be utilized in combination with DAAs empowering their effect. A powerful candidate HCV vaccine should create comprehensively cross-receptive T cells CD4 and CD8 and effectively neutralizing antibodies to successfully clear the virus. The current clinical trials for HCV vaccines comprise synthetic peptides, DNA-based vaccines, or recombinant protein vaccines. Several preclinical vaccine studies are under research including cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), HCV-like particles, and recombinant adenoviral vaccines. This mini-review will discuss the prevalence of HCV worldwide and in Egypt. We will present the recent progress in basic research and preclinical and clinical studies for HCV vaccine. Finally, it will present the phenomena of spontaneous clearance of HCV without treatment as a model for study of HCV vaccine development.
Part of the book: Update on Hepatitis C