Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a progressively increasing intraabdominal pressure of more than 20 mm Hg with new-onset thoracoabdominal organ dysfunction. Primary abdominal compartment syndrome means increased pressure due to injury or disease in the abdominopelvic region. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome means disease originating from outside the abdomen, such as significant burns or sepsis. As the pressure inside the abdomen increases, organ failure occurs, and the kidneys and lungs are the most frequently affected. Managements of ACS are multidisciplinary. Conservative treatment with adequate volume supple and with aggressive hemodynamic support is the first step. Decompressive laparotomy with open abdomen is indicated when ACS is refractory to conservative treatment and complicated with multiple organ failure. ACS can result in a high mortality rate, and successful treatment requires cooperation between physicians, intensivists, and surgeons.
Part of the book: A Comprehensive Review of Compartment Syndrome