Interest in converting waste into renewable energy has increased recently due to concerns about sustainability and climate change. This solid waste is mainly derived from municipal solid waste (MSW), biomass residue, plastic waste, and their mixtures. Gasification is one commonly applied technology that can convert solid waste into usable gases, including H2, CO, CH4, and CO2. Single- and multi-staged reactors have been utilized for solid waste gasification. Comparison in reactor dimensions, operating factors (e.g., gasification agent, temperature, and feed composition), performance (e.g., syngas yield and selectivity), advantages, and disadvantages are discussed and summarized. Additionally, discussion will include economic and advanced catalysts which have been developed for use in solid waste gasification. The multi-staged reactor can not only be applied for gasification, but also for pyrolysis and torrefaction.
Part of the book: Gasification
Epoxy is a widely used polymer because of its ease of processing, high adhesiveness, and high chemical resistance. Epoxy-based composites are commonly used in aerospace, automotive, and marine applications. The epoxy type, function, curing agent, and curing process are discussed in this chapter. Epoxy is used as either a filler or polymer matrix in composite applications. As a filler, the epoxy modification on the fiber is discussed. As a polymer matrix, the epoxy is reinforced by natural and synthetic fibers. The manufacturing process and the fabricated epoxy-based composites’ performance (e.g., mechanical and thermal properties) are investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of epoxy’s function are discussed and summarized. Epoxy modification is an effective approach to improve the composites’ performance.
Part of the book: Epoxy-Based Composites