Brazil is the second country with the highest rate of cesarean sections in the world. Most of these procedures are without medical reasons, representing risks for the mother and baby. Obstetric doctors are appointed as the main responsible for this index. The reasons given are for financial reasons or for the convenience of predictable and planned births, and in these cases, cesarean sections are performed without sufficient clarification to pregnant women about their risks and their real need. In this context, there is a constant conflict between doctors and social movement activists in favor of the humanization of childbirth. The purpose of this paper is to analyze from an anthropological point of view the arguments that doctors use to defend themselves against these accusations. Through participant observation at scientific events and meetings of representatives of medical entities, it was found that obstetricians argue that they are based on “medical evidence” and accuse humanized childbirth activists of being based on “ideology”. These arguments reflect the current political context in Brazil marked by intolerance and the advance of neoconservatism.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Caesarean Section