This chapter reviews the physiological and cellular functions of vitamin K in the cardiovascular system based on the latest pre-clinical and clinical evidence. Vitamin K belongs to a family of structurally similar fat-soluble vitamins, actively required by the body for the synthesis of essential proteins as well as regulate blood clotting, bone metabolism and calcium level. The authors emphasize the quintessential association between dietary vitamin K2 and cardiovascular diseases shown in various studies. The association, through the vitamin K - dependent hormones, plays a primary role in regulating calcification of different cell types, especially their role in calcification of the vascular endothelial cells. The consequences of vitamin K deficiency in the vascular system are unfavorable, shown in various clinical studies on statins - well-known inhibitors of vitamin K production in the body. New clinical insights suggest that vitamin K levels in the body and its dietary supplementation play a crucial role in cardiovascular disease prevention. There is negative influence of these antagonist’s pate in vascular composition and functions. Therefore, there is a need for prospective studies to make more in-depth exploration and increase the current understanding of this critical relationship to confidently apply such knowledge to prevent cardiovascular diseases and improve their outcomes.
Part of the book: Vitamin K