Micro milling process has become an attractive method for the rapid prototyping of micro devices. The process is based on subtractive manufacturing method in which materials from a sample are removed selectively. A comprehensive review on the fabrication of circular and rectangular cross-section channels of microfluidic devices using micro milling process is provided this review work. Process and machining parameters such as micro-tools selection, spindle speed, depth of cut, feed rate and strategy for process optimization will be reviewed. A case study on the rapid fabrication of a rectangular cross section channel of a microflow cytometer device with 200 um channel width and 50 um channel depth using CNC micro milling process is provided. The experimental work has produced a low surface roughness micro channel of 20 nm in roughness and demonstrated a microflow cytometer device that can produce hydrodynamic focusing with a focusing width of about 60 um.
Part of the book: Advances in Microfluidics and Nanofluids
Conventional perovskite solar cells utilize a combination of a compact and mesoporous layer of TiO2 or SnO2 as the electron transport layer. This structure is vulnerable to massive loss of photogenerated carriers due to grain boundary resistance in the layer. In this chapter, we will discuss a potential electron transport layer that might drive higher power conversion efficiency, i.e., thin and single-crystalline 2D transition metal dichalcogenide. Because of their ultimate thin structure, they facilitate rapid electron transport and enhanced carrier extraction in the solar cells device. We will also discuss the current state of the art of 2D transition metal dichalcogenide atomic layer application as an electron transport layer in the perovskite solar cells as well as our recent attempt in this field.
Part of the book: Chalcogenides