Turkey has advantage of lying on transection of three climatic zones. Namely Europe-Siberia, Iran- Turan and the Mediterranean region situated between 26 and 45° east longitude and 36–42° north latitude in the Northern hemisphere. The number of plant species subspecies, taxa and varieties in Flora of Turkey is above 12,000. In terms of plant diversity in the temperate zone, it attracts attention with its features that are different from the neighbouring countries around it in Asia, Europe and the Middle East. This has led to the development of many distinct ethno-medicinal-botanical habits among local people; who use different plant parts like roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, herbs, seeds, etc. in their cuisines, natural dyeing, decoration, textile dyeing and medicinal purposes, etc. This study reviews ethnomedicinal and botanic uses of the 196 taxa belonging to 54 families and 113 genera grown in Turkey.
Part of the book: Plant Roots
Fertilizers have become a necessity in plant production to fulfill the rapid rise in population and, as a result, the increased nutritional needs. However, the unintended and excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes many problems and has a negative impact on agricultural production in many countries today. The inability to determine the amount, types, and application periods of the applied fertilizers adversely affects the natural environment, resulting in global warming and climate change, as well as the occurrence of additional abiotic stressors that have an impact on agricultural productivity. Hence, alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides, such as the use of biofertilizers, must be explored for the betterment of agricultural production in a manner that does not jeopardize the ecological balance. Bacteria residing in the plant’s rhizosphere can help with plant development, disease management, harmful chemical removal, and nutrient absorption. Introducing such phytomicrobiome into the agricultural industry is an effective approach as a result of its long-term and environmentally favorable mechanisms to preserve plant health and quality. Hence, this chapter aims at highlighting the deleterious effects of chemical fertilizers and providing a striking demonstration of how effectively plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be used to increase the agriculture production in the context of climate change.
Part of the book: Revisiting Plant Biostimulants