Engulfment and Cell Motility-1 (ELMO-1) are well-known genes in Asia that can cause diabetic nephropathy in people with Diabetes Mellitus type-2. The increase in ELMO-1 protein affects Matrix Metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9) levels, both of which can cause chronic glomerular injury through dysregulation of Extra Cellular Matrix metabolism and decreased adhesive properties of endothelial cells to kidney structures. This study aims to prove differences in ELMO-1 and MMP-9 protein levels in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with Diabetic Nephropathy compared to those without Diabetic Nephropathy. This study is a comparative observational study with venous blood samples taken from 60 patients with type-2 DM patients without Diabetic Nephropathy as a control and type-2 DM group with Diabetic Nephropathy cases diagnosed based on the criteria of Glomerular Filtration Rate and Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio. In this study, the levels of ELMO-1 and MMP-9 proteins were checked by ELISA (Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay). The results showed that the mean plasma ELMO-1 value was higher in the Diabetes Mellitus type-2 group with Diabetic Nephropathy than without the Diabetic Nephropathy group (t-test, p = 0.025). The mean plasma MMP-9 value was higher in the DM with Diabetic Nephropathy group rather than in the DM without Diabetic Nephropathy group (t-test, p = 0.032). Conclusion ELMO-1 and MMP-9 levels were higher in Diabetes Mellitus type-2 with diabetic nephropathy.
Part of the book: Urinary Tract Infection and Nephropathy