Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health concern worldwide among civilians and military personnel. Gaps in our understanding of its biological basis create significant obstacles for accurate diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic interventions. In light of this, investigation of biological factors associated with possible molecular cues of inflammation or neuroimmune disorders, could provide new surrogate markers for PTSD or PTSD treatment response. Analyses to date in deployed military personnel have suggested that sets of chemokines may be useful as biomarkers for PTSD acquired in military operations. Specifically, studies to date suggest that CCL2, CCL15, CCL22, CCL25, CXCL2, and CXCL12 are associated with PTSD onset, while CCL13, CCL20, and CXCL6 are correlated to PTSD risk; CX3CL1 are associated with resilience; CCL3; CXCL11, and CXCL16 are associated with stress response. CCL11, CCL13, CCL20, and CCL25 are correlated with the severity of PTSD symptoms. This chapter reviews the current understanding of potential chemokine markers for PTSD, and the potential chemokines associated with PTSD onset, risk, resilience, as well as stress responses in service members. Although the proposed biomarkers require further validation, these findings may lead to additional knowledge for the education and development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for PTSD, not only benefiting military personnel, but civilians as well.
Part of the book: Current Topics on Military Medicine