Hydrometeorology aims at measuring and understanding the physics, chemistry, energy and water fluxes of the atmosphere, and their coupling with the earth surface environmental parameters. Accurate hydrometeorological records and observations with different timelines are crucial to assess climate evolution and weather forecast. Historical records suggest that the first hydrometeorological observations date back to ca 3500 BC. Reviewing these observations in the light of our modern knowledge of the dynamic of atmospheres is critical as it can reduce the ambiguities associated to understanding major fluctuations or evolutions in the earth climate. Today, the ambiguities in hydrometeorological observations have significantly improved due to the advances in monitoring, modeling, and forecasting of processes related to the land-atmosphere coupling and forcing. Numerical models have been developed to forecast hydrometeorological phenomena in short-, medium- and long-term horizons, ranging from hourly to annual timescales. We provide herein a synthetic review of advances in hydrometeorological observations from their infancy to today. In particular, we discuss the role of hydrometeorological records, observations, and modeling in assessing the amplitude and time-scale for climate change and global warming.
Part of the book: Hydrology