Limited studies evaluating the prevalence of cardiovascular risk (CVR) in resource-poor black communities in South Africa (SA), exist. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the prevalence of CVR in a cross-sectional studies in randomly selected low income children, adults and elderly in Gauteng, Free State and Eastern Cape, SA. The test panel of CVR markers included: anthropometry, lipid profile, blood pressure, fibrinogen, high sensitive–C–reactive protein (HS–CRP), homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate, glucose and dietary intakes. The main findings indicated high CVR with prevalence of overweight/obesity, Hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia, increased fibrinogen and HS-CRP, as well as low intakes of dietary fibre, vitamins B6 and B12, folate and polyunsaturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids, and high intakes of dietary sodium, saturated and trans fatty acids, and added sugars. Multiple CVR factors are present among all the communities. It can thus be concluded that a double burden of poverty and risk of CVD exists across the different age groups and geographical locations in these resource-poor communities.
Part of the book: Lifestyle and Epidemiology
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been reported to have a complex pathogenesis by a number of studies. Atherosclerosis and inflammation have been established as the main contributors to CVDs. Furthermore, genetic polymorphisms have been identified and found to have a correlation with an individual’s susceptibility to developing CVD. Some of these polymorphisms and corresponding cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors include: C174G (Interleukin (IL)-6 association), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C667T/A1298C (hyperhomocysteinaemia), VII R353Q (coagulation factor VII association) and rs247616/rs1968905/rs1270922 (cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CEPT) - cholesterol metabolism) amongst others. At a time when disease prediction, diagnosis and prognosis are still being investigated, these polymorphisms have the potential for use in these areas as well as opening more opportunities in the understanding of CVD. The objective of this chapter was to review the current knowledge about the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease.
Part of the book: Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease