Quantum computing is a modern way of computing that is based on the science of quantum mechanics and its unbelievable phenomena. It is a beautiful combination of physics, mathematics, computer science and information theory. It provides high computational power, less energy consumption and exponential speed over classical computers by controlling the behavior of small physical objects i.e. microscopic particles like atoms, electrons, photons, etc. Here, we present an introduction to the fundamental concepts and some ideas of quantum computing. This paper starts with the origin of traditional computing and discusses all the improvements and transformations that have been done due to their limitations until now. Then it moves on to the basic working of quantum computing and the quantum properties it follows like superposition, entanglement and interference. To understand the full potentials and challenges of a practical quantum computer that can be launched commercially, the paper covers the architecture, hardware, software, design, types and algorithms that are specifically required by the quantum computers. It uncovers the capability of quantum computers that can impact our lives in various viewpoints like cyber security, traffic optimization, medicines, artificial intelligence and many more. At last, we concluded all the importance, advantages and disadvantages of quantum computers. Small-scale quantum computers are being developed recently. This development is heading towards a great future due to their high potential capabilities and advancements in ongoing research. Before focusing on the significances of a general-purpose quantum computer and exploring the power of the new arising technology, it is better to review the origin, potentials, and limitations of the existing traditional computing. This information helps us in understanding the possible challenges in developing exotic and competitive technology. It will also give us an insight into the ongoing progress in this field.
Part of the book: Quantum Computing and Communications