The mineral structure of bones is never static, it is a living structure, reacting and adapting to load and having the ability to remodel. Skeletal cells work continuously to maintain the remodelling process therefore they are in a constant state of dynamic balance both in the sense of composition and structure, and they react to external mechanical forces. The remodelling processes that occur in the bone tissue allow for a proper functioning of this tissue, as well as for inclusion of additional elements, toxic ones included, in the remodelled bone, and they affect the metabolic processes occurring therein. This may result in disturbances in the osteoarticular system, manifested by changes in the bone tissue and within other organs. The influence of tobacco smoking on the content of strontium, lead, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and magnesium has not been confirmed. Non-smokers showed a high iron content in knee joint tissues compared to smokers. There were no statistically significant differences in the content of cadmium, nickel, copper and zinc in women and men in the studied knee joint components. With age, an increase in the content of chromium in knee joint tissues was observed, while gender, place of residence and occupational exposure had no effect.
Part of the book: Trace Elements and Their Effects on Human Health and Diseases