We describe generation and amplification of medium- and high-energy noise-like pulses (NLPs) using Yb-doped optical fibers. We also demonstrate supercontinuum (SC) generation techniques in which NLPs serve as the pump. SC pumped by NLPs has been employed successfully in optical coherence tomography systems.
Part of the book: Fiber Laser
Single-shot laser ablation of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was studied using dual-color waveform synthesis of the fundamental (ω) and its second harmonic (2ω) of a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser. Changing the relative phase of the fundamental (ω) and second-harmonic (2ω) outputs of the exciting laser resulted in clear modulation of the ablated area. The modulation as well as the dependence of the ablation threshold on the relative phase between the ω and 2ω beams correlated closely with the theoretical model of laser breakdown (ablation) of transparent materials through photoionization in the intermediate regime (Keldysh parameter γ ≈ 1.5). Our study illustrates the potential applications of using phase-controlled synthesized waveform for laser processing of materials.
Part of the book: Applications of Laser Ablation
Transparent conductors are essential for optoelectronic components operating in the far-infrared or terahertz (THz) frequency range. Indium tin oxide (ITO), extensively used in the visible, is semi-transparent in the far-infrared frequency range. Other types of bulk transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), such as aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) and aluminum and ytterbium-doped zinc oxide (AYZO), have not yet been explored for THz applications. Recently, biomimic nanomaterials have been shown to exhibit exotic optical properties, e.g., broadband, omnidirectional antireflective properties. Indeed, nanostructured ITO was found to exhibit the above desirable characteristics. In this chapter, we describe the fabrication and characterization of several TCOs, including ITO nanomaterials and several types of bulk TCO thin films, e.g., AZO and AYZO. Performance of THz phase shifters with ITO nanomaterials as transparent electrodes and liquid crystals for functionalities is presented.
Part of the book: Terahertz Spectroscopy
We review our theoretical and experimental studies on a class of liquid crystal (LC) photonic devices, i.e., terahertz (THz) phase gratings and beam steerers by using LCs. Such gratings can function as a THz polarizer and tunable THz beam splitters. The beam splitting ratio of the zeroth-order diffraction to the first-order diffraction by the grating can be tuned from 10:1 to 3:5. Gratings with two different base dimensions were prepared. The insertion loss is lower by approximately 2.5 dB for the one with the smaller base. The response times of the gratings were also studied and were long (tens of seconds) as expected because of the thick LC layer used. Accordingly, the devices are not suitable for applications that require fast modulation. However, they are suitable for instrumentation or apparatuses that require precise control, e.g., an apparatus requiring a fixed beam splitting ratio with occasional fine tuning. Schemes for speeding up the device responses were proposed. Based on the grating structure, we also achieved an electrically tunable THz beam steerer. Broadband THz radiation can be steered by 8.5° with respect to the incident beam by varying the driving voltages to yield the designed phase gradient.
Part of the book: Liquid Crystals
We present a new scheme of generating high-power attosecond pulses and arbitrary waveform synthesis by multicolor synthesis. The full bandwidth of the multicolor laser system extends more than two-octaves and reaches 37,600 cm−1 which can be used to generate sub-single-cycle (∼0.37 cycle) sub-femtosecond (360 attosecond) pulses with carrier-envelope phase (CEP) control. The results show a promising approach for generation of relatively high-power attosecond pulses in the optical region. In this chapter, the design and diagnostics of the laser system are described. In part 2 of this work (the following chapter), we demonstrate selected applications of this novel source, such as coherently controlled harmonic generation as well as phase-sensitive 2-color ablation of copper and stainless steel by this multi-color laser system.
Part of the book: High Power Laser Systems
In part I of this work, we present the design, construction and diagnostics of a new scheme of generating high-power attosecond pulses and arbitrary waveforms by multicolor synthesis. In this chapter, we demonstrate selected applications of this novel source, such as coherently controlled harmonic generation as well as phase-sensitive two-color ablation of copper and stainless steel by this multicolor laser system.
Part of the book: High Power Laser Systems