Comprehensive disaster response processes need to be managed and progress communicated to avoid ineffective management such as duplication with stakeholders, amendments as a result of leaders’ incomplete instructions, and waiting without instruction from the EOC (Emergency Operation Center). As there is existing research on standardization and systematization of disaster response processes, a pure paper-based SOP (Standard Operation Procedure) is challenging to use in actual and practical situations concerning the standard workflow based on the SOP. For effective disaster management, this study developed a Business Operation Support System (BOSS). The BOSS characteristics have the standard workflow chart based on the related documents and experiences, such as the SOP, concerning manuals/documents, past experiences, and knowledge. The overview, checkpoints, necessary documents, related information systems linked to the disaster management plan, and document formats are defined in every workflow. Even for the young or non-experienced individuals, the BOSS can support the responders through the processes for necessary actions during disasters. This research aims to compare the effect of responses to the 2019 massive rain disaster in Kawasaki city, with or without the BOSS. First,a comprehensive workflow focusing on shelter management under the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) workshop with Kawasaki city staff and community people in the BOSS was created. Second, experiments (with or without the BOSS) were carried out to analyze the differences and the BOSS effect. “With the BOSS” means that the responders can follow the workflow in the BOSS for shelter management. “Without the BOSS” means that the conventional paper-based manuals are used for the operations. Two types of manuals in Kawasaki city were used; one guides the expected shelter management points, and the other contains the explanation about COVID-19. Members of both teams comprise one leader and two staff. As a result of the experiments, the big difference between the two teams is the leader’s behavior. Because the BOSS team leader instructed the different staff works following the BOSS workflow, the BOSS team responded to more kinds of works compared to the manual team. The role of all members of the BOSS team was evident. On the other hand, the manual team responded to one work by all members, including the leader, without the leader’s instruction. Due to no instruction from the leader, a period of waiting was observed in the next work manual. This research obtained that the leader’s instructions’ effect caused the effective responses by quantitative analysis of the demonstrative experiment. For future research, the leader’s behavior and decision-making should be analyzed for BOSS’s effective operation and team-building.
Part of the book: Natural Hazards
Japan is a disaster-prone country and natural disasters could happen under COVID-19. Shelter management is especially important because many people evacuate there and there’s high risk of spreading infection. In order to establish feasible countermeasures in shelters, we conducted a survey about the current situation of preparation and experience of shelter management in Japanese local governments under COVID-19. From the answer of 346 municipalities, we found that some municipalities took measures against COVID-19 such as adding new shelters and conducting the training, and these proactive measures were very useful. However, due to the addition of infectious disease control work, it became clear that it would take time and difficulty at reception, and that it would be even more difficult to identify evacuees with the recommended distributed evacuation. These results can be useful in proceeding consideration of better shelter management under COVID-19.