The subterranean ecosystems in tropical areas of Mexico, North of Guatemala & Belize are very abundant because the karstic soil that allow these formations are the main composition in the Yucatán Peninsula and several mountains systems in these countries; also, they have a strong relationship with tropical forest adjacent where the main energy into the caves have an alloctonous origin. In these three countries there are three different cave conditions: a) freshwater semi-dry caves, b) flooded freshwater systems and c) anchialine systems. Mainly crustaceans and freshwater fishes are the major representative group in the aquatic diversity in these systems because the anchialine members are restricted to Yucatán Peninsula and Islands adjacent. Around 5000 entries to subterranean world there are among these countries, where the Yucatan Peninsula is the area with major caves or cenotes in comparison with southern of Mexico, North of Guatemala and Belize. Into these systems are possible found crustaceans and fishes from different families. The objective of this paper is present a review of these systems according with each karstic areas and show the current map including the location of each systems; as well their subterranean aquatic biodiversity and, finally discuss the relationships among these different areas using their biological aquatic richness in consideration with ecological subterranean conditions.
Part of the book: Natural History and Ecology of Mexico and Central America