Puerperium is the time following delivery during which pregnancy-induced maternal anatomical and physiological changes return to the nonpregnant state. Puerperium period of 6 weeks can be divided into: (a) immediate – within 24 hours (b) early – up to 7 days (c) remote – up to 6 weeks. The puerperal effects are seen in all organs and particularly in reproductive organs. Infection and haemorrhage are the common postpartum complications. Post partum care is very important. Advice on exclusive breast feeding and contraception is also mandatory after every childbirth.
Part of the book: Empowering Midwives and Obstetric Nurses
Ectopic pregnancy is defined as the implantation of a fertilised egg outside the uterine cavity. The site of ectopic pregnancy are Fallopian tube. Cervix, ovary, peritoneal cavity, or uterine scars. Other two site of implantation are cornual pregnancy and interstitial pregnancy. Diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy include a urine pregnancy tests, Serum beta hcG and ultrasound. The instant result of a urine pregnancy test is a useful pointer for the clinician to suspect an ectopic pregnancy. The test is a useful triage tool for clinicians to rule out a pregnancy when the clinical situation is not clear such as a patient who is not sure of dates, does not remember or is in a state of shock and the history cannot be elicited. Ultrasound remains the mainstay of the diagnosis and high index of suspicion and a detailed history are pre-requisite of scanning. Different ultrasonography feature are diagnostic of different site of implantation. For uterine scar pregnancy ultrasonologic criteria are not validated still now.
Part of the book: Ectopic Pregnancy and Prenatal Diagnosis