Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), especially carbon nanotubes and graphene, have been attracting tremendous attention in environmental analysis for rapid and cost effective detection of various analytes by electrochemical sensing. CNMs can increase the electrode effective area, enhance the electron transfer rate between the electrode and analytes, and/or act as catalysts to increase the efficiency of electrochemical reaction, detection, adsorption and removal are of great significance. Various carbon nanomaterials including carbon nanotubes, graphene, mesoporous carbon, carbon dots exhibited high adsorption and detection capacity. Carbon and its derivatives possess excellent electro catalytic properties for the modified sensors, electrochemical methods usually based on anodic stripping voltammetry at some modified carbon electrodes. Metal electrode detection sensitivity is enhanced through surface modification of working electrode (GCE). Heavy metals have the defined redox potential. A remarkable deal of efficiency with the electrochemical sensors can be succeeded by layering the surface of the working electrode with film of active electro-catalytic species. Usually, electro catalysts used for fabrication of sensors are surfactants, nano-materials, polymers, carbon-based materials, organic ligands and biomaterials.
Part of the book: Analytical Chemistry