In this Chapter, shrinkage porosity defects in steel castings are analysed, particularly for low carbon, high alloyed steels, which have applications in critical engineering components. It begins with the mechanisms for porosity formation within the solidification contraction phase of the casting cycle, highlighting the importance of feeder design. This is followed by characterisation of the solidification phase of steel alloys, including the evolution of phases, which is important in distinguishing between microstructure and porosity in microscopy analysis. A more detailed discussion of interdendritic feeding and mechanisms for shrinkage micro-porosity is then provided. This leads to the well-established interdendritic flow model and commonly-used thermal criteria for shrinkage porosity prediction. The discussions are then consolidated through the classification of shrinkage porosity in terms of formation mechanisms and morphology, and its causes relating to composition, design and process conditions. Finally, engineering standards for classification and inspection of porosity types and severity levels in steel castings are discussed. Throughout, basic design and process improvement approaches for improving melt feeding during solidification contraction is given, with emphasis on providing practical solutions for prediction and evaluation of shrinkage porosity defects in castings.
Part of the book: Casting Processes and Modelling of Metallic Materials