There is direct proportionality between ultimate tensile stress (UTS) and residual stresses (RS). Residual stresses gradually decrease with decreasing cooling/quenching rates. Quenching in cold water develops highest, whereas air cooling produces lowest, residual stresses. Significant increase in RS is observed in specimens with low dendrite arm spacing (high solidification rate), while lower residual stresses are measured in specimens with high dendrite arm spacing (low solidification rate). For I-4 and V-6 engine blocks, there is refinement in microstructure due to the increase in solidification rate along the cylinder length. The developed residual stresses are normally tensile in both engine types. Air cooling following solution heat treatment produces higher RS compared to warm water and cold water quenching. Solution heat treatment and freezing lead to maximum RS relaxation where 50% of the stresses are reduced after the solution heat treatment step. Aging time and temperature are directly proportional to the residual stresses relaxation. Relaxation of RS also depends on the geometry and size of the workpiece. It should be mentioned here that the I-4 and V-6 cylinder blocks were provided by Nemak-Canada (Windsor-Ontario-Canada). Residual stress measurements technique and procedure are typical of those used by the automotive industry in order to provide reliable data for industrial applications supported by intensive experiments.
Part of the book: Advanced Applications of Hydrogen and Engineering Systems in the Automotive Industry