Adsorption processes are extensively used in wastewater treatment for heavy metal removal. The most widely used adsorbent is activated carbon giving the best of results but it’s high cost limits its use. It has a high cost of production and regeneration. As the world today faces a shortage of freshwater resources, it is inevitable to look for alternatives that lessen the burden on existing resources. Also, heavy metals are toxic even in trace concentrations, so an environmentally safe method of their removal necessitated the requirement of low cost adsorbents. Adsorption is a cost-effective technique and gained recognition due to its minimum waste disposal advantage. This chapter focuses on the process of adsorption and the types of adsorbent available today. It also encompasses the low-cost adsorbents ranging from agricultural waste to industrial waste explaining the adsorption reaction condition. The cost-effectiveness, technical applicability and easy availability of raw material with low negative impact on the system are the precursors in selecting the adsorbents. The novelty of the chapter lies in covering a wide range of adsorbents with their efficiency in removal of heavy metals from wastewater.
Part of the book: Heavy Metals