Casting processes are reviewed from the point of view of the type of defects they produce and their consequential properties of the castings they produce, particularly resistance to fracture, and therefore, their reliability in service. The ingot casting of steels is criticized for unnecessary degradation of the steel. The fundamental problems of continuous casting of aluminum alloys and steels are seen to be lying in inattention to the details of the processes. Vacuum casting, particularly vacuum arc remelting, as currently executed, is seen to be fundamentally unreliable for any safety critical purposes, particularly its history of helicopter tragedies resulting from its use in helicopter drive trains.
Part of the book: Casting Processes and Modelling of Metallic Materials