Portal hypertension (PH) is a serious consequence of several disease states affecting prehepatic, intrahepatic, or posthepatic portal circulation. Backpressure caused by PH transmits through the collaterals to form varices at various sites. PH also leads to hyperdynamic congestion and altered gastrointestinal mucosal immune response, resulting in portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG), portal hypertensive enteropathy (PHE), and portal colopathy (PC). These PH associated phenomena may lead to torrential life-threatening bleed or chronic blood loss leading to debilitating chronic anemia. Endoscopy plays a pivotal role in the management of these patients both for diagnostic and therapeutic purpose. The choice of therapeutic strategy depends on many factors: severity of the disease, patient’s clinical performance, and whether it is done as an emergency or as a prophylactic approach. In this chapter, we evaluate the endoscopic management of patients with the gastrointestinal complications of PH.
Part of the book: Portal Hypertension