Part of the book: Ferroelectrics
This chapter explains the effect of compositional modification on the magnetoelectric coefficient in sintered piezoelectric – magnetostrictive composites. It was found that 15 at% doping of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 [PZN] in Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 [PZT] enhances the piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties of a PZT – 20 at% Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 [NZF] composite. The effect of doping on the ferromagnetic phase was also investigated. With increases in Zn concentration, it was found that the coercive field and Curie temperature of Ni(1-x)ZnxFe2O4 [NZF] decreases, while its saturation magnetization has a maxima at 30 mole% Zn. X-ray diffraction revealed that the lattice constant of NZF increases from 8.32 Å for 0 at% Zn to 8.39 Å for 50 at% Zn. The magnetoelectric coefficient was found to have a maxima of 144 mV/cm.Oe at 30 at% Zn. To understand better, the effect of 40% (by mole) Zn substitution on structural, piezoelectric, ferromagnetic and magnetoelectric properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 - CoFe2O4 (PZT - CFO) sintered composite is also explained. X-ray diffraction of Co0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 (CZF) showed the shift in almost all diffraction peaks to lower diffraction angle confirming the increase in lattice parameter in all three direction from 8.378 (for CFO) to 8.395 Å for (Co,Zn)Fe2O4 (CZF). SEM and TEM results showed defect structure (cleavage, twins, strain fields) in the CZF particle, which is a clear indication of misfit strain developed due to lattice expansion. Magnetic properties measured over temperature (5 K – 1000 K) showed increased magnetization but lower magnetic Curie temperature in PZT - CZF particle. Magnetoelectric coefficient measured as function of ferrite concentration showed an increase of more than 100% after doping the CFO phase with 40% Zn. This enhancement can be attributed to increase in the lattice strain, magnetic permeability and decrease in coercivity.
Part of the book: Piezoelectric Actuators
In this chapter, the piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties of Pb (Zr0.52T0.48)O3–X NiFe1.9Mn0.1O4 (PZT-NFM, where X ranges from 3 to 10%) were investigated along with SEM and TEM analysis. Post sintering thermal treatment (annealing and aging) was introduced to enhance the piezoelectric and magnetoelectric property of the composites. The density was found around 7.6–7.8 gm/cc. The piezoelectric constant d33 and the voltage constant were found to be decreased with increasing magnetic particle from 3–10%. Experimental results indicated that the magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (dE/dH) increases with increasing percentage of Nickel Ferrite (~35 for 3% NF to 140 mV/Oe. cm for 10% NF at 1125°C). The samples, which were annealed and aged after sintering show as high as 50% (140 to 220 mV/cm Oe) increase in dE/dH coefficient. This is due to the increase in resistivity due to better homogeneity. The H-M curve of the composite powders show that the PZT-NFM is a ferromagnetic material as well. The SEM investigation shows very compact structure with average grain size around 150 nm and some areas of the NF rich phase. The X-ray mapping shows that the NF is distributed in the big grains of the matrix and after annealing it homogenizes.
Part of the book: Ferrites
In this chapter, tensile properties of different grades of post-consumer recycled (PCR) polycarbonate (PC) plastics have been compared with conventional or virgin PC before and after different aging conditions. 50 and 75% recycled PCs showed comparable yield strength (∼57 MPa), maximum tensile strength (∼70 MPa) and maximum strain (∼190–200%) before aging, when compared to virgin PC of same melt flow rate (MFR of ∼10 g/10 min). From the fractography analysis (optical and scanning electron microscopy) of the both virgin and 50% recycled PC, it is evident that the fracture morphologies are very similar and they are indicative of ductile failure. It is observed that with the presence of temperature and humidity (60°C 90% RH) aging, tensile strength starts to drop over time but most importantly both 50% and 75% PCR grades showed similar aging behavior compared to virgin PC (10–13% strength degradation after 500 hours of aging). Reliability modelling showed comparable B10, Weibull Alpha and Weibull Beta values between Virgin PC and PCR grades after different aging conditions. Fractography analysis of fresh and aged 75% PCR also showed ductile features.
Part of the book: Waste Material Recycling in the Circular Economy