Gender-based heterogeneity in periodontal disease has been witnessed in the recent past with huge mounting evidence. The composite effect of sex-based genetic structure and the sex steroid hormones runs in line with the corresponding gender-related differences in risk for chronic periodontitis. Since estrogens, the predominant sex hormones in women, show immune protective and anti-inflammatory effects in hormonally active premenopausal women, they show better periodontal status compared to age-matched men. Conversely, after menopause with a weakening estrogen signal, women may show an equal or even more serious periodontal status compared to men. Periodontal status of postmenopausal women may be improved by menopausal hormone therapy. Alveolar bone loss, an irreversible sign of past periodontal disease activity can be easily observed on radiographs in an objective manner. Orthopantomographs provide a fairly accurate assessment of the status of alveolar bone in the whole mouth. A cross-sectional retrospective panoramic radiographic analysis has been carried out in a north Indian dental institute to decipher the gender-based distribution of periodontal bone loss. The current chapter shall provide an update on gender-based differences in oral health, underlying mechanisms, differences in patterns and distribution of alveolar bone loss (case study), and potential gender-specific disease protection and management strategies.
Part of the book: Clinical Concepts and Practical Management Techniques in Dentistry